Validating digital signature

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The United States Government Printing Office (GPO) publishes electronic versions of the budget, public and private laws, and congressional bills with digital signatures.Universities including Penn State, University of Chicago, and Stanford are publishing electronic student transcripts with digital signatures.

In the random oracle model, hash-then-sign (an idealized version of that practice where hash and padding combined have close to N possible outputs), this form of signature is existentially unforgeable, even against a chosen-plaintext attack.Further, some non-repudiation schemes offer a time stamp for the digital signature, so that even if the private key is exposed, the signature is valid.Digitally signed messages may be anything representable as a bitstring: examples include electronic mail, contracts, or a message sent via some other cryptographic protocol. First, the authenticity of a signature generated from a fixed message and fixed private key can be verified by using the corresponding public key.Digital signature schemes, in the sense used here, are cryptographically based, and must be implemented properly to be effective.Digital signatures can also provide non-repudiation, meaning that the signer cannot successfully claim they did not sign a message, while also claiming their private key remains secret.

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